Yes, but there's no simple "do this" solution for it. You have to manage the resuming process yourself.
Basically, what you need to do is add an entry to HKCU\Software\Microsoft\Windows\Currentversion\Runonce, or in some other auto start key, that starts the installer on next start-up. Use some command-line switch so the installer knows it's resuming the install process.
E.g. This will start the installer on next start-up with "/resume" command-line switch.
WriteRegStr HKCU "Software\Microsoft\Windows\Currentversion\Runonce" "InstallResume" '"$EXEPATH" /resume'
You need to write code that checks if the installer was started with the command-line switch and then adjust the install process accordingly.